This article is about fuel coke derived from coal. For fuel coke derived from petroleum, see Petroleum coke.

Raw coke and converted to metallurgical coke
Coke is a gray, hard, porous fuel with a large amount of carbon and few impurities, produced in the absence of air - by a destructive degradation process, by heating coal or oil. It is an important industrial product, mainly used in iron ore smelting, but also used as fuel in furnaces and forgings when air pollution is a concern.
The unqualified term "coke" usually refers to a product obtained from low-ash, low-sulfur bituminous coal by a process called coking. A similar product called petroleum coke or domestic coke is obtained from the crude oil of oil refineries. Coke may also form naturally by geological processes
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Coke Metallurgy

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Coal in the manufacture of metallurgical coke

Metallurgical coal is a special type of coal that is used in making metallurgical coke. There are two types of coal used to make metallurgical coke: hard coking coal and semi-hard coking coal, which is ideal for coking because it melts, swells, and solidifies again when placed in a large furnace. be. This type of coal also has few impurities. A third type of metallurgical coal, PCI, is sometimes used in steel or iron making to replace more expensive metallurgical coke.

Analysis of metallurgical coke

Coke is created by heating metallurgical coal to about 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit. According to the World Coal Association, the coking process takes about 12 to 36 hours in the oven. After exiting the furnace, the coke is cooled with water or air before being stored or fed directly into the blast furnace. According to the US Energy Information Administration, the final product is approximately two-thirds the weight of the raw material.

Factors affecting the quality of metallurgical coke

High-quality coke is usually made from high-quality coal. Coke manufacturers usually use coal blending to improve the quality of coke produced. A quality coal should not put too much pressure on the furnace wall and should be small enough to allow easy removal from the face coke oven. According to the American Iron and Steel Institute, coke properties and process performance are affected by moisture content, density, coal weathering and several other factors.

Uses of metallurgical coke

Regarding the use of metallurgical coke, it should be said that it is mainly used in the production of iron, which in turn is used as the main material of steel. The World Coal Association describes the iron making process as follows. During a typical method of iron making, iron ore, coke and small amounts of minerals used to collect impurities are placed in a blast furnace. Superheated air is blown into the furnace and causes the coke to burn. This burning produces carbon monoxide, which reacts with the iron ore and provides the heat to melt the hot iron. The valve at the bottom of the furnace allows molten iron as well as impurities to escape from the furnace.

Structure and strength of metallurgical coke

This study was conducted with the aim of investigating the relationship between the tensile strength of metallurgical coke and the textural composition of the carbon matrix and the porous structure of coke, as well as to further evaluate the use of these structural characteristics as the basis of coke strength prediction methods. Forty-four investigated cokes were produced in a small furnace of mixed coal based on six different coals of different grades. Their tissue composition was examined by polarized light microscopy, while pore structural parameters were measured by computerized image analysis coupled to reflected light microscopy. The tensile strength of metallurgical coke can be accurately related to textural data using several relationships, some of which are based on a model for coke inelasticity. Relationships between tensile strength and pore soil parameters were less successful, possibly due to problems associated with the measurement system used. Non-parallel relationships were also established and investigated with a combination of structural data and pore texture. In this way, it was shown that the relationship between the tensile strength and the calculation of the calculated texture data was the basis of the coke strength prediction method. Also, the tensile strength can be calculated from the mixture composition and the tensile strength of the coke produced from the component coke. Each of these two methods can be used because each of these two methods has great value in different situations.

What you need to know about the coal needed to make metallurgical coke...

Coal, also known as coking coal, is also used to produce metallurgical coke, which is the main source of carbon used in steelmaking. Coal is a naturally occurring sedimentary rock that has been deposited over millions of years by the formation of plants and other organic matter and exposed to geological forces. Heat and pressure cause physical and chemical changes on it, and as a result, coal is enriched with carbon.

Coal in metallurgical coke

Coal in metallurgical coke differs from thermal coal, which is used for power and heating, in terms of carbon and its coking ability. Its preparation has the ability to convert coal into coke, a pure form of carbon that can be used in basic oxygen furnaces. Bituminous coal, usually classified as a metallurgical class, is harder and blacker and contains more carbon and less moisture and ash than low-rank coal.

The grade of coal and its firing ability is determined by the rank of the coal. The measurement of volatile matter and transformation rate as well as mineral impurities and the ability of coal to melt, swell and correct when heated are important and effective factors. The three main categories of coal in metallurgical coke are:

• Hard Coking Coal (HCC)
• Semi-soft coking coal (SSCC)
• Raw coal (PCI)
Hard coking coals, such as anthracite, have better metallurgical coking properties than semi-soft coking coals, allowing them to command a higher price. HCC Australia is regarded as the industry benchmark in metallurgical coke.
While PCI coal is not often classified as coal in metallurgical coke, it is still used as an energy source in the steelmaking process and can partially replace metallurgical coke in some blast furnaces. replace